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Improving Branch Prediction by Correlating on Data Values college
topic: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International Symposium on Microarchitecture, November 1999
Branch predictors typically use combinations of branch PC bits and branch histories to make predictions.Recent improvements in branch predictors have come from reducing the effect of interference, i.e. multiplebranches mapping to the same table entries. In contrast, the branch difference predictor (BDP) uses data values asadditional information to improve the accuracy of conditional branch predictors. The BDP maintains a history ofdifferences between branch source register operands, and feeds these into the prediction process.

An important component of the BDP is a rare event predictor (REP) which reduces learning time and tableinterference. An REP is a cache-like structure designed to store patterns whose predictions differ from the norm.

Initially, ideal interference-free predictors are evaluated to determine how data values improve correla-tion. Next, execution driven simulations of complete designs realize this potential. The BDP reduces themisprediction rate of five SPEC95 integer benchmarks by up to 33% compared to gshare and by up to 15% compared to Bi-Mode predictors.

formats: Adobe PDF (109.9kB), PostScript (453.6kB) 1999-11-01 quality 10
Using Data Values to Aid Branch Prediction college
topic: My MSEE Research Report
My research was a concerned with gaining an understanding of some program constructs which create "hard to predict" branches, and figuring out how to use data-value information to predict branches. I started with a low-level investigation of the source-level constructs corresponding to the static branches with the most misses. Next, I investigated the predictability of register values leading up to these branches. I constructed several predictors for some particular branches in an effort to improve accuracy by utilizing available program information.

Data-values have the potential to help branch prediction accuracies a great deal - even more than 20% accuracy improvement over gshare for particular branches - though work remains to be done to determine an implementable, efficient method for exploiting this potential.

This research was meant to provide some basic insight into the problem so that further, more complete, studies could be done. The purpose of my research was not to be a comprehensive study, but instead a time-effective investigation of possible heuristics to aid branch-prediction. Finally, I contributed to a study of an implementable scheme which used data-values to aid branch prediction.

formats: Adobe PDF (560.9kB), PostScript (2739.6kB) 1998-12-17 quality 9
A Linux Implementation of HIP college
topic: ECE750 (Real-Time Computing) Report, Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison
As network traffic becomes more demanding, the overhead of invoking a hardware interrupt for each packet becomes high. For regular, frequent, traffic, such as video or audio streaming, a hybrid interrupt polling scheme (HIP) can be used to decrease this overhead. When packets arrive regularly and frequently enough, HIP disables network interrupts and polls the network interface card (NIC) during regular kernel context-switches (1ms resolution). Less overhead allows higher application CPU utilization and higher network bandwidth.

We have implemented HIP in the Linux 2.0.35 kernel for the 3Com 3c590 "Vortex" NIC (10BaseT), and have collected rudimentary performance information. For high packet traffic, HIP can reduce overhead up to 20%. HIP increases packet latency except when packets are very regular, and throughput for a normal application such as FTP is increased by 8.7%.

formats: Adobe PDF (336.2kB), PostScript (657.1kB) 1998-12-15 quality 5
Effectiveness of Arithmetic Code Protection in Dual ALU System college
topic: ECE753 (Fault-Tolerant Computer Systems), Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison
A duplicate system has two identical pieces of hardware which perform the same computation in parallel and then compare the results; if they disagree, an error message is generated. The duplicate system cannot tolerate faults but can only detect them. There is no method of determining which unit is faulty. However, a duplicate system can mask faults if the voter knows which unit is faulty.

We implemented an AN code protected duplicate ALU system. We injected arbitrary faults and measured the fault detection capability. We found a 90% improvement in our duplex system over the simplex system.

formats: Adobe PDF (59.8kB), PostScript (347.7kB) 1998-05-09 quality 5
Study of Relative Performance Impact: Coherence Protocol vs. Network Speed college
topic: ECE757 (Multiprocessor Computer Architecture), Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison
Architects and implementors must know design trade-offs to design successful systems. Two important aspects of multiprocessor performance are network quality and coherence protocol. We study the performance impact of coherence protocol choice (MSI vs. MESI) as compared to the performance impact of the high-speed network. A higher quality network is either wider, or has less latency, or both.

We find that in the majority of cases, network quality dominates the effects of coherence protocol - that is, lower-quality networks with the MESI protocol do not yield faster runs that higher-quality networks with the MSI protocol. We also note that program characteristics can affect which protocol performs better.

formats: Adobe PDF (158.9kB), PostScript (233.6kB), TeX (11.5kB) 1998-05-01 quality 5
Dynamic Instruction Reuse - SPECfp92 college
topic: CS752 (Uniprocessor Architecture), Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison
This report further studies the phenomenon of dynamic instruction reuse as proposed by Sodani and Sohi [1]. We analyze the behavior of SPECfp92 benchmarks to complement the SPECint92 results in [1]. Our results show that, like integer programs, floating-point programs can gain significant speedup from a reuse buffer, but reuse of floating-point instructions does not contribute a significant amount to that speedup.
formats: Adobe PDF (131.8kB), PostScript (323.1kB) 1997-12-04 quality 5
A Paper on Engineering Ethics college
topic: ECE350 (Human Communication for EEs)
Engineering is not only about using brick and metal to build physical towers: the basis of engineering is the ideas that engineers have. Just as burning and looting buildings is immoral, so is stealing the ideas of another and calling them your own.
In this paper, we will discuss a hypothetical case developed in Intellectual Property Rights: A Student's Guide, by Chin Yee Ng at MIT.
formats: Adobe PDF (67.2kB), PostScript (57.4kB), TeX (10.1kB) 1997-03-21 quality 5
A Brief History of the Web college
topic: ECE350 (Human Communication for EEs)
The World Wide Web (WWW) has become a ubiquitous part of modern culture. Since its introduction several years ago as the first easy-to-use network interface, it has rapidly become one of the most popular ways to retrieve information while creating a new mode of publishing to the masses.
formats: Adobe PDF (42.6kB), PostScript (34.8kB), TeX (7.1kB) 1997-02-06 quality 5
RRisc Architecture Report college
topic: ECE554 (Digital Engineering Laboratory)
The mission of UW--Madison's ECE 554 students is to Design a non--trivial computer with an original instruction set. This document describes the superscalar architecture developed by the RRisc team and how it was implemented in Xilinx XC4000 FPGAs using the WICEPS prototype board.
formats: Adobe PDF (397.7kB), PostScript (301.3kB), TeX (2.3kB) 1996-12-17 quality 5
Distributive Justice: A King's Castle Is His Home college
topic: Philosophy - Moral Issues (341), Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison
Should the strong be required to support the weak? How does a society "distribute" wealth among its members? These are the questions of Distributive Justice. There are three basic sides to this issue. The Permissive system entitles individuals to a subsistence income simply for existing as a human. The Puritan system requires that people at least be willing to contribute to society in order to receive a subsistence income. Finally, the Individualist view holds the property rights of the individual to be sacred: no one may forcibly deprive him of his goods I will argue for the last alternative.
formats: HTML (8.8kB), Adobe PDF (58.3kB), PostScript (108.3kB), TeX (9.1kB) 1995-04-26 quality 5
Final Report on Test Generation college
topic: ECE553 (Testing and Testability of Digital Systems)
Problem Statement:
1. Given a circuit description, generate a compact test set with high fault coverage.
2. Using test set from (1), determine whether three supplied circuits contain an injected fault.
3. Finally, determine the fault location in a fourth supplied circuit.
formats: Adobe PDF (151.6kB), PostScript (394.8kB), TeX (1.1kB) 1997-11-30 quality 4
Angst Overflow college
topic: What happens when a hacker has too much free time in grad. school
formats: HTML (5.0kB) 1997-10-26 quality 4
Short version of RRisc Architecture Report college
topic: ECE350 (Human Communication for EEs)
During the Fall semester of 1996, the RRisc team designed, debugged, and built a "non--trivial computer with an original instruction set," as specified in the project requirements for ECE554 at the University of Wisconsin - Madison.
After specification and design, the computer was implemented in hardware using Xilinx XC4000 series FPGAs, with support circuitry on the WICEPS board supplied for the course.
The main feature of our computer was that it was super--scalar; it could execute up to 3 instructions simultaneously.
The project was a success: once in hardware and debugged, the system ran at 4.09 MHz, a period of 209ns.
formats: Adobe PDF (191.1kB), PostScript (520.4kB), TeX (1.5kB) 1997-05-01 quality 4
Dynamic Programming: All-Points Shortest-Path Problem college
topic: CS577 (Algorithms)
Dynamic programming finds optimal solutions to problems by recursively figuring out which sub-solution, combined with the choices at the current level, will produce the best result
formats: Adobe PDF (45.7kB), PostScript (31.6kB), TeX (3.7kB) 1997-04-28 quality 4
Why I should really get a 100% on the CS577 midterm (it worked!). college
topic: CS577 (Algorithms)
formats: Adobe PDF (51.0kB), PostScript (101.2kB), TeX (2.8kB) 1997-04-01 quality 4
Minority Influence college
topic: CA266 (Theory of Groups)
Mascovici, Lage, and Naffrechoux (1972) demonstrated that a constant, repetitive, vocal minority can influence the majority. Nemeth, Swedlund, and Kanki built on this to show that repetition is not necessary; it is only necessary that the majority perceive confidence and consistency in the viewpoint of the minority for minority influence to occur. Minority and majority influence is linked to normative and informational influence; the minority can only have informational influence and the majority uses normative influence because it defines the group norms.
formats: HTML (6.4kB) 1996-10-01 quality 4
Communication Networks college
topic: CA266 (Theory of Groups)
The results of the exercise illustrated the differences between autocratic and democratic groups. In summary, the most important differences are that democratic groups always take more time, always have more satisfied members, and have accuracy directly proportional to task difficulty. Conversely, autocratic groups take less time, always have less satisfied members, and have accuracy inversely proportional to task difficulty.
formats: HTML (5.6kB) 1996-10-01 quality 4
Group Decision Experiment college
topic: CA266 (Theory of Groups)
On Friday, November 1, my group took part in an experiment that studied various aspects of the group decision--making process. The situation was this: we were district attornies trying to decide who was the best person to prosecute in a murder case. We were told that the information we were given might be different, and we were told that it would be a judgemental task, that there was no "right" answer.

In conclusion, we had already made up our minds before coming into the meeting. Each of us had all the information and did not have to discuss to gain new information from other group members. The only change that occured was a clarification of the problem, which changed Andy's mind.

formats: HTML (5.2kB) 1996-10-01 quality 4
Work Summary Report college
topic: Summer 1996 at HP-Colorado
I have been working at the COL division of Hewlett-Packard, located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, for the last 2 months. We design, manufacture, and support logic analyzers, processor emulators, and other embedded system development tools. This document describes my experiences by including a general description of my tasks and projects, skills I developed, observations regarding the work environment, and the strengths and weaknesses I displayed. Hewlett-Packard is a very large company, but its divisions are locally managed, which helps to maintain a small-company feel.
formats: Adobe PDF (47.0kB), PostScript (85.8kB), TeX (8.8kB) 1996-07-25 quality 4
Investigation into the Construction of Parallel Plate Capacitors college
topic: ECE220 (Electrostatics)
We designed and built two capacitors based on the parallel plate model: one consisting of two parallel disks separated by paper; and another consisting of many dielectric and conducting layers. We were able to achieve capacitances of 1.21nF and 61.7nF respectively. Modifying our dielectric by adding "Inductor Oil" further increased each roughly by a factor of 2 to 2.15nF and 121.8nF. Our results confirmed the predicted C = E*A/d.
formats: Adobe PDF (80.7kB), PostScript (168.9kB), TeX (14.9kB) 1995-12-10 quality 4
Short Paper about Group Darwinism in the Manhatten Project Era college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
During WWII, while there was still a global threat by the Stalin and Hitler, the scientists who could, flocked to the United States and worked on the Bomb Project. Science could not exist in an atmosphere that exists under an oppressive dictatorship.
formats: Adobe PDF (30.2kB), PostScript (54.4kB), TeX (2.8kB) 1995-12-06 quality 4
Short paper relating to Big Science. college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
Again, Big Science has pushed forward scientific progress, as it has with Atomic Physics and others. This time it was George Ellery Hale who was the great builder.
formats: Adobe PDF (30.3kB), PostScript (59.7kB), TeX (2.5kB) 1995-11-29 quality 4
Short Paper about Truth in the Manhatten Project Era college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
The period of 1937-1940, the years just before the Second World War, juxtaposed two opposing theories of knowledge and truth. One was the scientific search for beauty and order in the universe, as the physicists of the era were doing; the other, proferred by the politicians and tyrants, was one of hatred and evil.
formats: Adobe PDF (30.6kB), PostScript (57.2kB), TeX (3.1kB) 1995-10-31 quality 4
Study sheet for 3-d caclulus college
topic: MATH223 (3-d calculus)
formats: Adobe PDF (77.0kB), PostScript (163.8kB), TeX (5.7kB) 1995-05-01 quality 4
Self-evaluation of talk college
topic: ECE350 (Human Communication for EEs)
On March 7, 1997 I gave a talk titled "The Existential Pleasures of Engineering: The LCD Module via Parallel Port Project." The audience was a group of engineers, and the purpose of the talk was to give a technical overview of the project.
formats: Adobe PDF (36.7kB), PostScript (92.9kB), TeX (3.1kB) 1997-05-01 quality 3
Report on a talk by Miguel Lorne titled Garveism and the Rastafarian Movement in the Caribbean and their Implication on the Americas. college
topic: ECE350 (Human Communication for EEs)
On Thursday, February 13, I attended a talk given by Miguel Lorne titled, "Garveism and the Rastafarian Movement in the Caribbean and their Implication on the Americas."
Once I got past the strangeness of the situation, I realized that Miguel was a good speaker, for the most part. This was not a technical talk, but a time to for him to tell stories about himself and the history of people in the Caribbean.
formats: Adobe PDF (33.2kB), PostScript (27.2kB), TeX (3.2kB) 1997-05-01 quality 3
Is Arrowhead High School trying to censor my brother? college
topic: Regarding Abe's ANTI-AHS Web Page
formats: HTML (1.3kB) 1997-03-10 quality 3
On Leadership Attributes college
topic: CA266 (Theory of Groups)
Every successful leader must have a basic set of certain traits, however the role of the leader in the group determines which extra, specialized traits that leader must have. I will discuss how our group's list of leadership traits, and those of our leader, compare to those special characteristics required of military, corporate, sports, and academic leaders.
formats: HTML (5.6kB) 1996-09-01 quality 3
Short paper on the Manhatten Project college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
The scientists frantically worked on the Manhatten Project so that the world would not be overtaken by Germany's facist rulers. That was a moral decision on their part to keep something they valued - a more free world, one on which they wanted to live. That was their moral justification of the production of the bomb.
formats: Adobe PDF (26.4kB), PostScript (48.5kB), TeX (1.8kB) 1995-11-13 quality 3
A short paper relating to the Division of Scientists during the Manhatten Project Era. college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
While the world was dividing just before the Second World War, the international physicists were trying to stay together. They were torn by pressures from Gorvernments who wanted power.
formats: Adobe PDF (25.5kB), PostScript (46.3kB), TeX (1.8kB) 1995-11-08 quality 3
Paper comparing and contrasting Watson and Jungk's versions of Science. college
topic: History of Science in the 20th Century
Watson's The Double Helix and Jungk's Brighter Than a Thousand Suns give two sharply contrasting views of science, and the behavior of scientists. Many think Watson's is a "dirty" science, while Jungk's is "pure, clean" science. Just as it is an error to stereotype all people who live in Wisconsin as farmers, so it is an error to assume all scientists are the same.
formats: Adobe PDF (39.9kB), PostScript (77.6kB), TeX (3.3kB) 1995-11-08 quality 3
What drives me to do engineering college
topic: Trying to get an enginering scholarship
I am driven to apply technology to find excellent solutions.
Making things work in elegant ways is something that excites and motivates me. There is a unique pleasure in creating a device with an elegant design and watching it work correctly, efficiently.
formats: HTML (4.8kB) 1996-03-21 quality 2
Why I do engineering, II. college
topic: A scholarship application
The difference between what is possible and what is commonly available frustrtes me. I want to apply technology to find excellent solutions.
formats: HTML (2.2kB) 1995-01-01 quality 2
My work experience, honors and awards, etc college
topic: Trying to get an engineering scholarship.
formats: HTML (3.9kB) 1996-03-21 quality 0

[Zak Smith] [] [/~zak/documents/college]
$Id: documents,v 1.5 2000/09/28 21:20:39 zak Exp zak $
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